Rehabilitation, which is a multifaceted treatment approach, aims to improve the person by eliminating congenital or acquired movement restrictions.
Rehabilitation, which can be applied in different ways depending on the subject it focuses on, is carried out under the leadership of a physiotherapist and accompanied by health professionals such as physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psychologists, nurses and social workers.
What Is Rehabilitation? What Does It Do?
Rehabilitation is a treatment method that aims to gain physical independence of individuals by partially or completely eliminating physiological and anatomical disorders.
There is no uniform standard in the rehabilitation programme planned specifically for the loss of function in the body and the patient. The aim of the application is to eliminate physical inadequacies, to minimise pain caused by dysfunctions and to enable the individual to use his/her current capacity at the highest level.
What Are The Types Of Rehabilitation?
Rehabilitation is an application aimed at enabling the person to perform physical activities without any problems and alone. It is divided into different types according to the problematic area and the condition of the person:
Vocational rehabilitation is a practice that helps to overcome the problems faced by the individual in the process of returning to work after any disorder, injury or illness. This process covers a wide range of interventions and focuses on finding the most suitable occupation for the individual’s current situation.
In determining the feasibility of the occupation, many factors such as job analyses, knowledge and skills of the person are taken into consideration. Thus, it is ensured that the person finds and applies the most suitable occupation for his/her disability. The aim here is to determine the most appropriate working standards for the current situation rather than providing physical improvement.
Orthopedic rehabilitation, which is a specialised sub-unit, is the whole of the applications planned for the treatment of many diseases in the skeletal system. Treatment options here vary according to the diagnosis and diagnosis of the disease. Especially in the pre- and post-operative period, the person overcomes physical obstacles and regains mobility with orthopaedic rehabilitation. Some of the application areas are as follows:
- Birth anomalies
- Peripheral vascular diseases
- Arterial and venous circulation disorders
- Recurrent bone inflammation
- Diseases related to musculoskeletal system
Neurological rehabilitation focuses on loss of function due to nerve damage caused by any reason. It provides the necessary physiotherapy support to the patient at all stages from bed level to stepping.
Basically, these are the applications that help to treat problems such as paralysis, loss of function, sensory and balance disorders. Within the scope of treatment, various exercises, orthosis use, botox injection and medical approaches are used together to alleviate muscle contractions.
Neurological disorders that cause musculoskeletal problems can be improved with this versatile treatment system. Many diseases such as strokes, spinal cord and brain injuries, nerve injuries, facial paralysis, cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s are covered by neurological rehabilitation.
The studies carried out to maintain life as close to normal in people with lung problems are called pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients with shortness of breath and chronic respiratory disorders despite medical intervention are evaluated within the scope of rehabilitation.
Some lung patients may also be subjected to pulmonary rehabilitation before or after surgical intervention. The aim here is to improve the physical and psychological condition of the patient, to improve health by providing the necessary exercise training to the individual and to teach correct breathing techniques. Commonly treated diseases are as follows:
- Cystic fibrosis
- Neuromuscular diseases
- Thoracic cage disorders
REHABILITATION OF MUSCLE DISEASES
Diseases of the motor cells in the spinal cord, muscle tissue and nerves are called muscle diseases. These diseases can occur for different reasons and cause the muscle not to follow the command from the brain.
As a result, movements cannot be performed as desired and various physical disabilities occur in the person. Muscle rehabilitation is the work applied to improve such problems. The aim of the treatment is to increase muscle strength, prevent muscle problems and prevent movement problems by supporting the joints.
Stretching exercises for shortening muscles, strengthening exercises for lengthening muscles and breathing exercises that correct weakness in respiratory muscles are all included in muscle disease rehabilitation.
OBSTETRIC AND UROGYNAECOLOGICAL REHABILITATION
Labour exercises initiated in pregnant women after the 16th week are called obstetric rehabilitation. These exercises also include childbirth education and postnatal exercises from the 30th week onwards. It aims to inform women about the pregnancy process, labour and postnatal period.
Keeping the body in proper shape during pregnancy helps to prevent various musculoskeletal and circulatory problems. In obstetric rehabilitation, relaxation and breathing techniques used during labour and birth are also taught. Thus, it is aimed to have a healthy pregnancy and to recover as soon as possible after birth.
Urogynecological rehabilitation is all of the exercises applied to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles and to correct this problem in people with urinary incontinence.
With Kegel exercises, conscious use of the muscles used to hold urine is ensured. In these exercises, muscle tightening and relaxation movements are applied, in addition, additional exercises can be included in the application according to the patient’s condition.
In sports rehabilitation, it is aimed to heal the injuries and disabilities that occur in sports people as soon as possible, so that the person can reach his/her professional level again.
Athlete injuries include problems that are more serious than those of normal individuals and require special treatment. In the treatment, it is also important that the athlete can maintain his/her former performance rather than regaining his/her movement function.
For those who have to take a long break from sports due to any injury or accident, a personal rehabilitation programme is prepared to strengthen the muscles and complete the return to sports in the most ideal way.
In this process, it is necessary to maintain a teamwork consisting of different people such as a specialist doctor, physiotherapist, laboratory, medical technician, masseuse / masseur, prosthesis technician, trainer and nurse.
Long-term treatment and a healthy life in patients with heart disease can be achieved through the implementation of various exercise programmes. Family education, stress control and various additional therapies may also be considered at this stage.
One of the aims of cardiac rehabilitation is to improve the quality of life in cardiac patients and to ensure return to activities of daily living with minimal loss. This programme is implemented under medical supervision such as ECG monitoring, pulse and blood pressure monitoring, oxygen level measurement.
In this way, it is aimed to reduce the risk of death and limit physical problems and tissue damage. Some of the situations where rehabilitation is applied are as follows:
- Heart attack
- Coronary angioplasty
- Coronary artery bypass
- Stent implantation
- Heart failure
- Pacemaker implantation
- Heart valve replacement
- Heart transplant
Paediatric rehabilitation focuses on children who have problems during or after birth. Many diseases such as cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and scoliosis can be treated with rehabilitation for newborns and adolescents.
There are different methods applied in the treatment process and thus it is possible to eliminate different disabilities. In the work planned according to the needs of the child, there are goals such as maximising daily life skills and adapting to life. In addition, rehabilitation for children aims to attract the child’s attention with gamified exercises.
Some of the techniques applied in this treatment are as follows:
- Oral motor and speech exercises
- Joint treatment
- Basic sign language training
- Basic writing training
- Wheelchair sitting therapy
- Methods of gaining communication skills
- Prosthetics and orthotics training
- Social skills training
- Gait training
- Emotional integration techniques
- Neurodevelopmental therapy applications
Amputee rehabilitation; It is a treatment applied to people whose body parts such as arms, legs, hands and feet have been cut off. It is ensured that those who have lost their limbs for any reason are reintegrated into daily life and society with prosthesis.
Rehabilitation is started before limb removal and continues after the prosthesis set. In this way, the person is trained to use the prosthesis and taught techniques to meet daily needs alone.
Amputee rehabilitation, which is a very long-term application, includes a comprehensive programme such as integrating with the community, returning to professional life and regaining self-confidence as well as gaining ordinary daily mobility.
Reducing the loss of function and function loss experienced by the person due to limb loss and eliminating the feeling of inadequacy are among the targets. Elimination of psychological problems such as depression is also included in rehabilitation.
Cancer rehabilitation is a treatment planned according to the type and effects of the tumour in the person. In this treatment, it is applied as an adjunct to cancer treatment and aims to eliminate physical deficiencies in the individual.
The need for rehabilitation arises in most cancer patients. The rehabilitation to be applied is determined according to the type of tumour. The need for rehabilitation is especially high in nervous system, head and neck, lung and breast tumours. The rehabilitation approach applied in this way is as follows:
- Pain management
- Movement assessment and treatment
- Prevention of bone seizures
- Eliminating cancer-related muscle fatigue
- Exercise planning
- Reducing neurological complications and tissue damage