What Is Spondylolysis And Spondylolisthesis?

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Spondylolisthesis is a condition in which one vertebra slips forward over another vertebra in the lower back. It is most common in the lumbar spine. There are different types of spondylolisthesis.

It is most common in the lumbar spine. There are different types of spondylolisthesis.


It may occur as a result of a congenital deformity or it may start with a small fracture in childhood as a result of repetitive traumas.

It may also occur due to calcification over the years or after a serious trauma.

It may also occur after lumbar surgery due to herniated disc or other causes.

It may also be a result of cancer, infection or metabolic bone diseases that commonly involve the bones.

The onset of complaints in people with slipped disc may be acute or chronic. Before starting spondylolysis treatment, necessary examinations should be performed to determine the causes of slippage.

If the patient has severe slippage, motor, sensory and reflex changes occur. In other words, muscle weakness, loss of sensation and decrease in reflexes are observed.

Bending the patient backwards usually increases the complaints. The degree of slippage is determined in the graphs taken. Treatment is usually conservative.

Activities or sports that trigger the complaint are restricted until the patient’s complaints decrease.

Various medications are used to reduce pain. Physiotherapy applications are important in the rehabilitation of the patient.

The aim of exercise applications is to improve abdominal muscle strength and increase the patient’s flexibility.

Tense hamstring muscle is usually present. Appropriate stretching of the hamstring muscles is important in treatment.

Pelvic tilt exercises are taught to reduce any postural condition that may cause an increase in lumbar lordosis.


Surgical treatment is necessary if there is persistent pain or neurological findings such as worsening muscle loss, sensory loss and if it does not improve despite non-surgical treatments.

The aim of surgical treatment is to stabilise that segment of the spine and to remove the pressure from the nerve structures.

Recovery depends on the type and degree of slippage. Low-level slips usually recover with non-surgical treatment.

However, if there are advanced slips and accompanying calcification, the response to treatment decreases.

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